Pope John Paul II and Ukrainian Catholic Liturgical Life
Renewal of Eastern Identity[1]

 Rev. Mark M. Morozowich, SEOD

Introduction

The identity of a church – especially in the Christian East – is mirrored in its liturgy, the core expression of a worshiping community.  The role of Pope John Paul II in the liturgical life of the Ukrainian Catholic Church presents a formidable challenge.  His impact was not in the issuing of new decrees or the revision of liturgical books, but rather in creating the ecclesiological climate for the realities of the liturgical change already enacted in the reformed Liturgical texts edited in Rome in the Forties and explicated in the principles of the Second Vatican Council to take deeper root and become effective.  Also, he played a pivotal role in the establishment of a true synodal system of government in the Ukrainian Catholic Church.  These important steps helped to stimulate an ecclesiological reality of esteem for its own Eastern identity and bring to maturity a new understanding of what it means to be a church sui iuris in unity with the church of Rome, but not uniformity or even imitation.

To understand this relationship, let us compare the reality of liturgical life with the ideal reflected in the official texts promoting an Eastern identity.  This will involve examining the underlying issues of church identity, and how the Papacy of John Paul II shaped the official liturgical life of the Ukrainian Catholic Church and how that life was lived and expressed in the parishes.  Several key liturgical explanations will be developed in order to facilitate comprehension of the issues at hand. 

A Snapshot of Liturgical Life on the Eve of John Paul II’s Election

On the October 16, 1978, Karol Cardinal Wojtyla of Krakow, Poland became the Pope of Rome and announced to the world that he would be known as John Paul II.  The elevation of a Slav to the Papacy would have many tremendous effects.  His unique understanding of the Ukrainian Catholic Church would provide him with a deep understanding and an ability to help this church.  In God’s providence, Pope John Paul II witnessed the freedom of the Ukrainian Catholic Church in Ukraine and worked ardently to reestablish its hierarchy and normalize its ecclesial life. 

As I reflect upon my lifelong journey in the Ukrainian Catholic Church many images from my youth, in the seventies, flood my memory.  I was a child at the time of his election and vivid memories of the liturgical life of my parish, in McKeesport, Pennsylvania, still shape my piety and imagination.  I will present a few of those memories as I think that they are typical of the situation of most Ukrainian Catholic Churches at that time.  I can remember the Slavonic Liturgies sung by the people as if it were a Latin Mass: by that I mean that the people would sing a hymn like the Only Begotten Son while the priest recited the ektenia to himself.  So there was no real interchange between the people and the priest.  Liturgy became a collection of liturgical hymns punctuated by the mysterious Words of Institution spoken by the priest and accentuated by the ringing of hand bells on the part of the altar boy.  Not understanding the language, I didn’t make much of the experience then, only later did I understand this as a liturgical anomaly.  This practice was the wholesale imitation of the pre-Vatican II Latin Rite style of mass with the priest and the altar boy reciting the liturgy while the people did their own thing.  This occurred a full ten years after the New Latin Rite Ordo had been in effect, not to mention thirteen years after the conclusion of the Second Vatican Council.  So we were imitating a Latin practice no longer in use.  Isn’t it strange that we sometimes take the worst liturgical experiences of other traditions and then tenaciously hold on to them?  Lenten services were filled with Stations of the Cross followed by Solemn Benediction with the Holy Eucharist.  The English liturgy, which my family normally attended, was recited and even done hastily at times in order to get the people in and out as quickly as possible.  Of course, I recall my First Holy Communion with the special suit and ceremony and the party afterward. 

Now our parish wasn’t entirely latinized, our newly installed Iconostasis was a source of pride for the parish.  We were Byzantine and liked its characteristics, but we really pushed our Catholic identity and wanted to be just like the Catholics down the street, or at least our conception of them.  I think this image was representative of the free Ukrainian Catholic Church from Pennsylvania to Germany, even as far as Australia.   It was only after I entered St. Basil Seminary in Stamford, Connecticut that I experienced the Ukrainian Byzantine liturgical tradition in its correct complete form, including services like Matins, Vespers and the Presanctified Liturgy.  My liturgical horizons began to expand, yet there was always this underlying suspicion, expressed by the priests about not being too Orthodox.[2]

This snapshot presents a few of the issues that characterized the Ukrainian Catholic Church on the eve of the Papacy of John Paul II.  These issues of latinization and other liturgical problems underwent great change during his Pontificate.  Our journey into understanding his impact on the liturgical life of the Ukrainian Catholic Church will focus on various activities and statements of Pope John Paul II that have specific relevance to the Ukrainian Catholic Church’s liturgical life. 

John Paul II Visits Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral in Philadelphia

The fall of 1979 marked the Pontiff’s first visit to the United States.  He spoke at the United Nations and the major east coast Roman Catholic churches, but among the important places for the Pope to visit on his first trip to the United States was the Immaculate Conception Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral in Philadelphia on October 4, 1979.  The Pope was overjoyed at the possibility of being in the Cathedral of the Ukrainians and he spoke clearly about the important role that the Eastern Churches play.[3]  Speaking in Ukrainian he began with the typical greetings to the hierarchy and people, he then mentioned the fact that a piece of the tomb of Peter was sent to this Cathedral in Philadelphia as a sign of its unity with the See of Rome.  He spoke of the important differences of ecclesial traditions within the Catholic Church.  Quoting from Vatican II, Pope John Paul II underlined the importance of our own Eastern Heritage:

Catholic unity also entails a recognition of the successor of St. Peter and his ministry of strengthening and preserving intact the communion of the universal Church, while safeguarding the existence of legitimate individual traditions within it. The Ukrainian Church, as well as the other Eastern Churches, has a right and duty, in accordance with the teaching of the Council (Orientalium Ecclesiarum 5), to preserve its own ecclesiastical and spiritual patrimony. It is precisely because these individuals traditions are also intended for the enrichment of the universal Church that the Apostolic See of Rome takes great care to protect and foster each one. In turn, the ecclesial communities that follow these traditions are called to adhere with love and respect to certain particular forms of discipline which my predecessors and I, in fulfilling our pastoral responsibility to the universal Church, have judged necessary for the well being of the whole Body of Christ.[4]

So Pope John Paul indicated very early on in his Pontificate that he planned to continue implementing the directives and the teachings of the Second Vatican Council, especially in regard to the eastern ecclesial realities.  This clear support of the need for an authentic Eastern identity within the Ukrainian Catholic Church will continue to be a predominant theme throughout his Pontificate.

 

Pope Celebrates The Ukrainian Liturgy In Rome – Implications

Pope John Paul II’s first opportunity to celebrate the Ukrainian Catholic Liturgy occurred shortly after his visit to Philadelphia.  Officiating in Old Slavonic, he ordained Msgr. Dr. Myroslav Lubachivsky to the episcopacy in the Sistine Chapel on November 12, 1979 on the Feast of St. Josaphat with Patriarch Josyf and other Ukrainian Catholic Bishops concelebrating.[5]  This liturgy was celebrated according to the Roman Archierartikon[6] published in 1975 that still was not adhered to throughout the entire Ukrainian Catholic Church.  This unique opportunity for the Pope of Rome to celebrate in another liturgical tradition demonstrated not only his facility with languages, but more importantly, his keen awareness and love for the particular liturgical traditions under his care.  Likewise he was stressing the importance of adherence to the liturgical norms of our official liturgical books: with this act, he begins to teach by example.

In so doing, he was fostering the vision of the Second Vatican regarding the liturgical life of the Eastern Churches.  What may be the most salient passage of The Decree on the Oriental ChurchesOrientalium Ecclesiarum – has this to say in section 6 regarding liturgy:

All members of the Eastern Rite should know and be convinced that they can and should always preserve their legitimate liturgical rite and their established way of life, and that these may not be altered except to obtain for themselves an organic improvement.  All these, then, must be observed by the members of the Eastern rites themselves. Besides, they should attain to an ever greater knowledge and a more exact use of them, and, if in their regard they have fallen short owing to contingencies of times and persons, they should take steps to return to their ancestral traditions.[7] 

So the Council has called all of the Eastern Churches and thus our own Ukrainian Catholic Church to “preserve their legitimate liturgical rite” and “take steps to return to their ancestral traditions.”  These key principles of Orientalium Ecclesiarum help us to understand what Pope John Paul II was hinting at in his address in Philadelphia. 

The technical term applied to the deviances from the Byzantine tradition based upon latin influence is latinization.  This phenomenon has been described by Fr. Robert Taft by comparing the liturgical symbological system to a language.[8]  One can not simply make up the rules as one goes along; rather, grammar and the inherent linguistic system of a language dictate its proper use.  And the same must be said for liturgy.  The understanding of any particular liturgical tradition depends on its coherent symbological and theological system.  To add the articles from French nouns to Ukrainian nouns would be absurd – just as absurd as the indiscriminate addition of Latin traditions to the Byzantine tradition.  The symbol system of a tradition must be followed in order to make sense and in order to follow it one must first study it in depth.

This complex problem of latinization requires much reflection.  Taft provides an introductory overview:

Some Eastern Catholic clergy see their history as a progress from schism and spiritual stagnation to a life of discipline, renewal, and restored religious practice in the Catholic communion. For this group, the adoption of certain Latin—they would say “Catholic”—devotions and liturgical uses is a sign of this new identity. Such attitudes reflect an interior erosion of the Eastern Christian consciousness, a “latinization of the heart” resulting from a formation insensitive to the true nature of the variety of traditions within the Catholic Church.[9]

 

Even though the Second Vatican Council was concluded at the end of 1965, some fourteen years later its impact still had not taken a deep hold in the Ukrainian Catholic Church.[10]  From the very beginning of his Papacy, John Paul II urged his fellow Bishops to take the appropriate steps to realize this vision of Vatican II.  The lack of understanding by the Ukrainian Catholics of their own proper identity corresponds directly to the academic, spiritual, ecclesial, and historical realities that shaped the Ukrainian Catholic Church.  It is not the result of maliciousness or evil will: rather, it stems from an inability to have the proper freedom necessary to enable growth.

 

A Brief Sitz im Leben

Of course history is vital to understanding this difficult situation.  One of the mitigating circumstances of the liturgical life of the Ukrainian Catholic Church was its long struggle over the centuries to maintain its very existence under foreign domination and most recently through Soviet persecution.[11]  This struggle for existence led to the adapting of different strategies to maintain itself.  This important historical background will help us to understand the real life situation we had to confront in order to comprehend the latinized state of our liturgical life.  Often the Western portion of Ukraine, home of today’s Ukrainian Catholic church, was in the hands of Latin Catholic rulers.  The differences between Byzantine Liturgical life and Latin Liturgical life reflect divergent theological world views as well as issues of style and divergent liturgical languages.  This difference became the measure others used to test our fidelity to the Holy See.  The unstated maxim was: “if you don’t look like us, act like us, how can you truly be Catholic?”  The result was the common place latinization of the liturgical practices of our church.

This extremely difficult liturgical situation was not exclusively the result of the geo-political situation, but also from earlier attitudes of the Roman Curia.  For years, the Eastern churches were simply tolerated as some sort of an aberration from the Roman liturgical norms and were placed under the Congregation for the Propogation of the Faith.[12]  These attitudes of suspicion have existed for centuries.  An example of this attitude can be witnessed in an early sixteenth century report by John Łaski, Archbishop of Gniezno, Poland to the Fifth Lateran Council at its eleventh session.[13]  This long and detailed report contains a section entitled: “De sacramentis, sint eorum sacramenta vera et ab eis administrabilia.”  Among the problems enumerated is idolatry during the Great Entrance,[14] the use of Teplota,[15] and the administration of Chrismation by priests.[16]  There is no record, however, that this report was read at the council; rather, it provides an important historical testament to a mentality that did not approve of these divergences from the Latin tradition. The end of the sixteenth century marked the Union of Brest with its assurances that the ritual practices of the Ruthenians would be preserved.[17]  The phenomenon of this union with the Catholic Church has been the subject of much debate and polemics through the centuries.  Many recent studies have been accomplished to analize the effects of this union.[18]  The notion of latinization resulted from an aberrant view of church union that may not have been official, but remained on the popular level.[19]  At the end of the nineteenth century this began to change with Pope Leo XIII (1810-1903) who began to highlight the importance of the Eastern churches and their own traditions.[20]  It was Pope Benedict XV (1854-1922), the immediate name sake predecessor of our current Pontiff, who created the Oriental Congregation[21] and the Pontifical Oriental Institute[22] in 1917 in order to raise the status of the Eastern Catholic Churches to their proper dignity.  These important institutions have provided an invaluable service to the Eastern churches, not only from a juridical and administrative point of view, but perhaps more crucially on the academic level with the specialized study of their liturgical traditions, thus leaving speculation and emotion aside in order to focus on facts and verifiable truths.

This brief historical sketch provides an important context for understanding the world that Pope John Paul II was operating from in his relationship to the Eastern Churches in general and the Ukrainian Catholic Church in particular.  One realizes that the liturgical problems did not disappear with the stroke of a pen; in fact, many of these problems remain with the Ukrainian Catholic Church until today and still require much attention.

Josyf I and Pope John Paul II

As we move forward historically, the striking act, as preserved in photo, of Pope John Paul II kissing the hand of the dearly departed Patriarch Josyf I in 1984 clearly testifies not only to the esteem which Pope John Paul II held for Patriarch Josyf, but also of his deep respect for the traditions of the Ukrainian Catholic Church.  His role in the synodal elections for a successor to Patriarch Josyf is beyond the scope of this paper and does not directly touch the liturgical aspects.  It is important, however, to stress that Pope John Paul II effectively brought Episcopacy of the Ukrainian Catholic Church together in order to govern in a regular synodal system according to Eastern tradition. 

Pope Celebrates Marian Year with Eastern Services

Turning directly to liturgical issues, the next big event was the Marian year from 1987-1988 as Pope John Paul II joined in the celebration of five Eastern Marian liturgical services which included Vespers, the Akathistos Hymn, the Incensation Prayer of the Copts and the Holy Divine Liturgy.[23]  The celebration of these services demonstrated not only the Pontiff’s love of the Eastern liturgical traditions but also, as pointed out in the commemorative book entitled Liturgie dell’Oriente Cristiano a Roma nell’ anno Mariano 1987-88, that one of the express aims of these celebrations was the purification of the ritual.[24]  So the importance of the Pope of Rome celebrating these Eastern Liturgical services according to their correct manner is crucial as it helps to dispel prejudices against certain practices: if the Pope did it then it must be proper.

1987 also saw the issuance of a special Circular letter by the Congregation for Catholic Education entitled: “Circular Letter Concerning Studies of the Oriental Churches.”[25]  The Prefect, Cardinal Baum, stressed the importance of the Eastern Churches for the Western Churches and the necessity for courses and lectures regarding the role and dignity of the Eastern Churches.  He underlined the unique contribution that the churches of the East have made and continue to make to the entire Church.  This stress on education reminds us that indeed education truly possess the potentiality for effecting lasting change.

Millennium of Christianity in Kyivan-Rus’

The Apostolic Letter Euntes in mundum of January 25, 1988, marking the Millennium of Kyivan-Rus Christianity for the whole Church, and the Message Magnum Baptismi donum, of February 14 . 1988, addressed specifically to Ukrainian Catholics are milestones in the life of our church.  It is important to note that these letters were preceded by a letter written on March 19, 1979 to Cardinal Josyf Slypyj in preparation for these events.[26]  In Euntes in mundum 3, the Pope stresses the influence of the Byzantine patrimony on the life of the newly Baptized Ukrainian lands in theology, liturgy, spirituality, ecclesial life and art.[27]  He emphasized that their particular rights and their autonomous character were not something that were granted by special favor grant by the Roman Church, but they are a part of their very identity and privilege form Apostolic times.[28]  This theme will become crucial in identifying the rights and of course the obligations of a church sui iuris.  This fact helps to develop the argument that Pope John Paul II’s ability to create a different ecclesiological climate helped to enable the Ukrainian Catholic Church to put into effect the guidelines of the Second Vatican Council and the liturgical reforms of the Forties that were still not observed in their entirety.[29]

The Pope’s love for the traditions of the East and his particular concern for the Ukrainian Catholic Church lead him to be the celebrant of a Ukrainian Catholic Liturgy in St. Peter’s Basilica for the Occasion of the Millennium of Ukrainian Christianity on July 10, 1988.[30]  As a seminarian helping the millennial public relations effort of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, I was in attendance at this historic liturgy and even had the privilege of receiving the Eucharist from Pope John Paul II.  This spectacular and historical liturgy provided yet another occasion for the complete endorsement of the Liturgical reforms of the Forties as mentioned above.  It also provided the opportunity to celebrate the revised Pontifical Liturgy that has now become the norm.

Among the various liturgical issues that the Ukrainian Catholic Church[31] was dealing with in trying to recover its past was the usage of Teplota or Zeon in Greek,[32] that refers to the addition of hot boiling water to the chalice after the fraction of the Lamb and immediately before the communion of the celebrants.  The symbology of this act is found its accompanying words: “The fervor of the faith full of the Holy Spirit.”  It is the sign of the presence of the Holy Spirit by its warmth and also of the idea that we have a living Christ witnessed both in the risen bread and in the warmth of the Eucharistic species themselves.

This problem among the Eastern Catholic Churches has been dealt with over the centuries.  The Italo-Greeks of southern Italy faced this controversy early on and can be seen in a letter by Nikolaos-Nektarios, abbot (1219-†1235) of the monastery of San Nicola di Casole near Otranto, in his Epistula vel Apologia pro illo Græcorum ritu quo utuntur in sacra missa adhibentes aquam calidam in sacro calice post commixtionem Dominici corporis et sanguinis.[33]  This presented itself as an issue during the Synod of Zamość 1720 where the rite was suppressed.[34]  The suppression occurred despite various Papal proclamations that approved its use in the Eucharist: March 6, 1254, Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254)[35], Pope Benedict XIV in Etsi pastoralis (§6 no. 2) of January 26, 1742, and Allatae sunt (§26) of July 26, 1755.[36]  This difficult historical situation and the lack of a firm understanding of the theology of the teplota have left their marks even today.  Taft opines on this situation:

…some Greek Catholics, more Catholic than the pope, will still appeal to the outdated suppression of the zeon at Zamość. The author himself has experienced personally the scruples of latinized Eastern Catholic priests, fearful that if too much zeon is added to the consecrated wine it would induce the Lord to take his leave! The general theory among Catholic adherents to this “quantitative” rather than symbolic sacramental theology is that the chalice mixture must contain two-thirds wine for “validity.” As the evidence adduced by J.-M. Hanssens, S.J., shows, however, one would be hard put to demonstrate that there was only one-third water in the cups the early Christians consecrated.[37] And the first authoritative insistence on adding to the chalice only a small amount of water is found in canon 814 of the pre-Vatican II Latin rite Codex iuris canonici,[38] a disciplinary decree that does not concern Eastern usage in any way.[39] 

The inclusion of the tepolata in the text of the Papal liturgy and the Pope’s celebration of this rite clearly demonstrated that it was to be followed in all of the Ukrainian Catholic churches despite the reticence of many clergy, which awkwardly enough exists even to this day, whether in Ukraine, Western Europe or North and South America.  This is no surprise as adherence to liturgical norms often lacks cooperation among the clergy and the laity.  It is also worthwhile to note that the prayer book for pilgrims who attended the Millennium Celebrations likewise included the teplota.[40]

Yet another normative use provided in the Papal celebration is the utilization of the term orthodox (or pravoslavni) Christians in the liturgy.  Although some people view it polemically, this term is not the identity of a confessional entity, but it means true believing Christians.

The diversity of services for the celebrations of the Millennium of Ukrainian Christianity included the Divine Liturgy as well as Molebens to Christ the Savior and Volodymyr the Great.  This variety of liturgies and the diverse places that the liturgies were celebrated demonstrates an interest in our own liturgical patrimony as well as a clear sign of unity with the Roman church.  Also the choice of these particular services reflects openness to the richness of its own Eastern traditions, even if many of the pilgrims were celebrating these Molebens for the first time in Rome.

CCEO and Liturgy

The promulgation of the Code of Canon Law for the Eastern Catholic Churches (hereafter CCEO) in Apostolic Constitution Sacri Canones[41] of October 18, 1990 decreed that the Code will come into force on October 1, 1991 represented a fantastic achievement in providing for a normative set of laws to govern the Eastern Churches and help them to realize their own unique identity as churches sui iuris.  This landmark compilation provided new impetus for the general life of the Eastern Catholic Churches.  The impact was still being felt ten years later with a special commemorative Symposium held at the Vatican November 19-23, 2001.[42]  The special importance of liturgy in the Code was addressed in a speech by C. Gugerotti entitled: “Law and Liturgy in the Eastern Catholic Churches.”[43]

The many liturgical prescriptions codified provide yet another re-elaboration of the principles of Vatican II.  Some examples include the renewal of the Rites of Christian Initiation, including the unity of the three sacraments, Baptism, Confirmation, and Eucharist in Canons 697, 710.  Some Ukrainian Catholic Eparchies have moved forward and implemented this concept.  In my own priestly life, being ordained in 1991, I have regularly celebrated the Sacraments of Initiation as one ceremony taken at the normal Sunday Liturgy in the presence of the entire community: my Eparch, Bishop Robert Moskal of the Eparchy of St. Josaphat in Parma, made it the norm in 1991.  After years of utilizing a provisional text, he finally published a book giving the complete ceremony in 2002.[44]  This ceremony is not simply a return to a past practice; rather, it adapts the Baptismal rituals into the regular Eucharistic liturgy thus underlying the full entrance of the newly baptized into a faith community.  Also this marked an official return to the communion of infants, a normative practice in the Christian East.[45] 

In Praise of the East – Apostolic Letter Orientale Lumen

The Apostolic Letter Orientale Lumen issued on May 2, 1995 by Pope John Paul II stresses the unique value of the Eastern Churches:

Since, in fact, we believe that the venerable and ancient tradition of the Eastern Churches is an integral part of the heritage of Christ’s Church, the first need for Catholics is to be familiar with that tradition, so as to be nourished by it and to encourage the process of unity in the best way possible for each.  Our Eastern Catholic brothers and sisters are very conscious of being the living bearers of this tradition, together with our Orthodox brothers and sisters. (OL 1)[46]  

This statement places the Eastern Catholic Churches on equal footing with their Orthodox counterparts as living bearers of the Eastern tradition and calls them to be aware of their own tradition, albeit a shared tradition.  The usage of the term tradition is a precise theological concept:

For the historian of the Christian tradition, however, that pattern is not so much a quest for tradition as its test.  Tradition is not history, nor is it the past.  Tradition is the church’s self-conscious now of that which has been handed on to it not as an inert treasure, but as a dynamic principle of life.  It is the church’s contemporary reality understood genetically, in continuity with that which produced it.  The very basis of the church’s ideal is to represent faithfully and reinterpret for each new circumstance and age, the will and message of its founder not only at its point of origin, but at every moment of the continuum at which that will and message have been manifested.”[47] 

Tradition and especially liturgical tradition form a central part of who we are as a church.  It is not something that is simply changed with our whim and fancy.  Nor is it a childlike belief; rather, it is a unique vision and understanding of the lived presence of God in our midst through the centuries as experienced in this particular manifestation.  As we reflect upon Orientale Lumen, it leads us to understand our place within the great patrimony of the Byzantine tradition as it is lived out from our own unique Ukrainian perspective.

This perspective places our reflection within a certain theological framework.  This shapes our understanding of the liturgy and our practices.  Taft further clarifies this issue:

In other words, liturgy is a common tradition, an ideal of prayer to which I must rise, and not some private game that I am free to reduce to the level of my own banality.  And when the rite has something I do not understand, especially if it is something that Christians in almost every tradition, East and West, have been doing for about a millennium, then perhaps my initial instinct should be to suspect some deficiency in my own understanding, before immediately proceeding to excise whatever it is that has had the effrontery to escape the limits of my intelligence.[48] 

He clearly stresses the need to deepen our understanding and reflect.  All too often, people tinker with the liturgy as if it were their own personal prayer and not the prayer of the community.  This dramatic and important recognition of the common liturgical, spiritual, theological, canonical tradition gives further impetus to the task of renewal aimed at living an authentically Byzantine liturgical experience. 

The notion of returning to a tradition makes people a bit uneasy at times.  People often think of it as some sort of a static reality or the creation of a museum.  Pope John Paul II speaks very clearly of this Eastern patrimony as he stresses that it is not something of the past, but a living reality:

Within this framework, liturgical prayer in the East shows a great aptitude for involving the human person in his or her totality: the mystery is sung in the loftiness of its content, but also in the warmth of the sentiments it awakens in the heart of redeemed humanity. (OL 1)[49]  

Many people in our churches today do not understand this reality.  People have told me that they don’t understand why we are going backward and not forward that is as if we were on a path forward by incorporating Latin liturgical practices.  This betrays a profound ignorance among many people regarding their own ecclesial identity; especially their own liturgical identity.  Part of the reason this occurs is because we do not have enough educated Ukrainian Catholic liturgists.  

Despite this situation the Pope continues to focus on the importance of liturgy in the Eastern churches.  In Orientale Lumen 5, 6, 8, 11, & 24, Pope John Paul II speaks repeatedly about the richness of the Eastern liturgical traditions and their suitability for today.   In Orientale Lumen 5 the Pope states:

I listen to the Churches of the East, which I know are living interpreters of the treasure of tradition they preserve. In contemplating it, before my eyes appear elements of great significance for fuller and more thorough understanding of the Christian experience. These elements are capable of giving a more complete Christian response to the expectations of the men and women of today.[50]

 

This accentuation upon the importance of the liturgy speaking to today’s people reminds us that the Ukrainian Catholic Church has a poignant task to complete: there is something to offer the world, the entire world and not just ethnic Ukrainians.  Pope John Paul’s esteem for the Eastern liturgies can clearly be seen in the following quote:

Within this framework, liturgical prayer in the East shows a great aptitude for involving the human person in his or her totality: the mystery is sung in the loftiness of its content, but also in the warmth of the sentiments it awakens in the heart of redeemed humanity. In the sacred act, even bodiliness is summoned to praise, and beauty, which in the East is one of the best loved names expressing the divine harmony and the model of humanity transfigured, appears everywhere: in the shape of the church, in the sounds, in the colors, in the lights, in the scents. The lengthy duration of the celebrations, the repeated invocations, everything expresses gradual identification with the mystery celebrated with one's whole person. Thus the prayer of the Church already becomes participation in the heavenly liturgy, an anticipation of the final beatitude.[51]

 

These wonderful statements of Pope John Paul II will remain simply words without the proper formation of the faithful.  The great riches of the Eastern liturgical tradition need to be highlighted in the Ukrainian Catholic Church today.  In the entire world today, there are no more than a handful of Ukrainian Catholics with Doctorates working fulltime in the academic field of liturgy.  How can we expound on the riches of our liturgical tradition with so few adequately trained professionals? The importance of education and formation of people was stressed by Pope John Paul II in Orientale Lumen 24:

The children of the Catholic Church already know the ways indicated by the Holy See for achieving this: to know the liturgy of the Eastern Churches; to deepen their knowledge of the spiritual traditions of the Fathers and Doctors of the Christian East, to follow the example of the Eastern Churches for the inculturation of the Gospel message; to combat tensions between Latins and Orientals and to encourage dialogue between Catholics and the Orthodox; to train in specialized institutions theologians, liturgists, historians and canonists for the Christian East, who in turn can spread knowledge of the Eastern Churches; to offer appropriate teaching on these subjects in seminaries and theological faculties, especially to future priests. These remain very sound recommendations on which I intend to insist with particular force.[52]

 

Pope John Paul II’s clear esteem, deep understanding of the situation of the Eastern churches, and repeated declarations have helped to change the intellectual climate.  Orientale Lumen provides yet another instance of the Pope’s direction of the liturgical life of the Ukrainian Catholic Church.

Pope John Paul II continually highlighted the role and importance of the Eastern Churches utilizing various means.  This was witnessed even in less official documents such as this address to a general audience on August 9, 1995.  The Holy Father stated: “On their journey together, the West received a great deal from the East in the area of liturgy, spiritual tradition, and juridical order.”[53]  The Holy Father goes on and says: “In this regard, I would like to stress the great consideration shown by the Council for the spiritual treasures of the Christian East, starting with those connected with the sacred liturgy.  The Eastern Churches celebrate the liturgy with great love.”[54]  His accentuation of the unique things that we have to offer as an Eastern Catholic Church should cause us to further rejoice and to be proud: this will lead to a vibrantly alive liturgical tradition to be shared with the world.

 

Pope Celebrates the Union of Brest

On November 12, 1995, another Apostolic Letter written to the Ukrainian faithful, focused on Fourth Centenary of the Union of Brest.[55]  Let’s take a look at a key point regarding his continued appreciation for the Ukrainian Catholic Church and his interest in its liturgy:

12. The jubilee celebrations should also be a time of reflection. The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church must first of all ask itself what full communion with the Apostolic See meant for it in the past, and what it will mean for it in the future. In a spirit of humble thanksgiving, the Greek Catholic Church will give glory to God, for its heroic fidelity to the Successor of Peter and, under the action of the Holy Spirit, it will understand that today this same fidelity commits it to fostering the unity of all the Churches. This fidelity cost it sufferings and martyrdom in the past: this is a sacrifice offered to God in order to implore the hoped-for union.  Faithfulness to the ancient Oriental traditions is one of the means available to the Eastern Catholic Churches for promoting Christian unity. The Council's Decree Unitatis redintegratio is very explicit when it declares: "All should realize that it is of supreme importance to understand, venerate, preserve, and foster the exceedingly rich liturgical and spiritual heritage of the Eastern Churches, in order faithfully to preserve the fullness of Christian tradition, and to bring about reconciliation between Eastern and Western Christians". [56]

 

The Pope recognizes the unique sufferings of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, but he puts it in relationship with the goal of ecumenism.  So does this mean that our liturgical tradition and heritage are simply a function of ecumenical or political will? Absolutely not!  This simply underscores the notion that we are sharers of the same liturgical tradition as all Byzantine Christians and we must strive to understand the whole of Christian tradition as a synthetic presence.

Certainly the Union of Brest celebration was particularly poignant as this was the first time since the fall of the Soviet Union that the entire Ukrainian Catholic Church in the world could now be gathered together with the Holy Father, since the newly freed underground church in Ukraine was now able to participate.  On July 7, 1996, the Pope once again celebrated the Ukrainian Catholic Liturgy in the Basilica of St. Peters.  Of course, he did all of the same things as the 1988 liturgy and once again he used teplota,[57] further underscoring its normative character.

 

Instruction on Liturgical Matters

Perhaps the most significant document for the liturgical life of the Ukrainian Catholic church was the publication of The Instruction for Applying the Liturgical Prescriptions of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.[58]  The stated aim of this document is that “… the intent of the Instruction, presented to the Eastern Churches which are in full communion with the Apostolic See, is to help them fully realize their own identity.”[59] This important fact has called the Ukrainian Catholic Church to be more cognizant of its own gifts and talents especially in light of the importance of liturgical life.  

One of the primary concerns repeated throughout the years of Pope John Paul II’s Papacy is the preservation of this unique Eastern identity.  This theme is developed in The Instruction 10:  “The danger of losing the Eastern identity manifests itself particularly in a time like the present, characterized by great migrations from the East toward lands believed to be more hospitable, which are prevalently of Latin tradition”[60]  This directly identifies many problems faced by the Eastern Churches in general thus helping to contextualize the situation of the Ukrainian Catholic Church.

This heritage does not mean that our Church should be a museum, but rather that it lives in the hearts of the people.  The Instruction 15 states: “The preservation of the liturgical riches will be more fruitful the more they are determined not only by normative intervention by the Hierarchy, but also by the spontaneous and faithful adhesion of the Christian people, so educated by their pastors.”[61]  As witnessed earlier, liturgical renewal is not about a simple adherence to a rubric or past ideal.  This renewal really focuses upon the dynamic spiritual life of the community that is to be experienced through the Divine Liturgy.

The Instruction 18 goes a step further as it provides some guidelines for this renewal: “The first requirement of every Eastern liturgical renewal, as is also the case for liturgical reform in the West, is that of rediscovering full fidelity to their own liturgical traditions, benefiting from their riches and eliminating that which has altered their authenticity.”[62]  The church continues to remind us that our Eastern heritage does not belong to static past: it really is a dynamic presence today.

Pope John Paul II truly contributed to the deepening of our consciousness of the great riches of our own liturgical traditions.  Fr. Robert Taft in his lecture of the Sir Daniel and Countess Bernadine Murphy Donohue Chair in Eastern Catholic Theology at the Pontifical Oriental Institute in 1997 entitled: “The Contribution of Eastern Liturgy to the Understanding of Christian Worship” reflects on this point:

But it would be wrong to think that Eastern Christianity does not have within itself the spiritual means to cope with modernity.  As we have seen, Eastern liturgy – and liturgy is simply the mirror to Orthodoxy’s inner world- has preserved from the storehouse of its past, elements that are not only desperately needed but also of great appeal to modern men and women: An attachment and profound rootedness in what is best in its own past, a deeply reverential sprit, a sense of the utter transcendence and holiness of God, a high Christology, the only truly integral and effective pneumatology in Christian history, an emphasis on the local Church and the consequent synodal or sobornal structure of church koinonia and governance.”[63]

 

This quote helps us to realize the importance of our own Eastern liturgical traditions as already stressed in the Instruction.  It clearly focuses upon the fact that this tradition has something to offer to today.   The richness and importance of this tradition, at times ill appreciated, truly does have a unique, specific and wonderful gift to the modern world today.  The Instruction should encourage all Ukrainian Catholics to go forward and live their traditions in a renewed manner as Pope John Paul II hoped.

 

Second Millennium Eastern Liturgical Celebrations

Pope John Paul II’s concern for the East continued to be manifested even during the busy celebrations of the Second Millennium of Christianity as he celebrated the Akathistos Hymn on December 8, 2000 with participants from the various Eastern churches.[64]  The hymn was prayed in Greek, Church Slavonic, Ukrainian, Romanian and Arabic.  He also recognized various martyrs during a special ceremony on May 7, 2000.[65]  The presence of the Eastern Churches both Catholic and non-Catholic witnessed a sense of unity during the festive celebrations of the third Christian millennium.

 

Pope John Paul II Visits Ukraine and the Election of Cardinal Husar

Pope John Paul II once again demonstrated his unrelenting support as he elevated the newly elected Major Archbishop Lubomyr Husar to a Cardinal on February 22, 2001 almost immediately after his election.  In fact his name was added to the list following the general announcement of the Consistory because the list was published even before the Synod held the election. 

This dignity granted to Patriarch Lubomyr Husar paved the way for the historic visit of Pope John Paul II to Ukraine from June 23-27, 2001 which marked a climactic point in the relationship of the Pope and the Ukrainian Catholic Church.  This momentous first-ever modern era visit of a Pope of Rome to the Ukrainian Catholic Church in Ukraine not only provided recognition of the sufferings of the faithful, but also validation of their steadfast commitment to ecclesial unity.  The Pope presided at the Ukrainian Liturgies because of his advanced age while Cardinal Husar celebrated the Liturgy with his fellow Bishops and priests.  Pope John Paul II beatified the Martyrs Mykola Carneckyj and his 24 companions, Theodoere Romzha, Omelian Kovch and Sr. Josaphata Hordashevska.  This important addition to the Liturgical calendar of the Ukrainian Catholic Church marks a continued improvement of recognition of local saints – specifically Ukrainian, not to mention a validation of the sufferings under communism.  One should not forget to include the martyrs of Pratylun whom he beatified in Rome on October 6, 1996.Vincentius Lewoniuk (1849-1874) and his companions, laymen and martyrs (†1874). 

This important addition to the calendar marks a beginning of a true inclusion of our own saints.  An interesting study on this topic was defended in a doctoral dissertation by Mr. Mykhajlo Petrowycz, entitled, Bringing Back the Saints: The Contribution of the Roman Edition of the Ruthenian Liturgical Books (Recensio Ruthena, 1940-1952) to the Commemoration of Slavic Saints in the Ukrainian Catholic Church, whose detailed study of the list of saints that were included in the Roman Revised Liturgical books of the Forties and the rationale for their inclusion provides much food for thought.[66]

This visit sparked a new sense of life in the Ukrainian Catholic Church.  The entire world was focused on it for several days.  The world now was aware of the plight of this church.  The liturgical celebrations were all done according to the approved books, once again underscoring their authoritative nature.  The beatifications, a long overdue recognition of the faithful suffering of so many Ukrainian Catholics, stimulated a new sense of pride and religious devotion.  Pope John Paul II truly left an indelible mark upon the Ukrainian Catholic Church with his visit and his joining in the liturgical celebrations of this church on its own territory.

 

Overview

The Ukrainian Catholic Church has adapted and changed throughout the Pontificate of Pope John Paul II.  Many different steps have been taken to provide a more authentic Eastern experience.  Let’s review some of the concrete witnesses.

The inclusion of the teplota has been manifested in many Ukrainian Catholic parishes in the world, as well as the Ukrainian Catholic University in Lviv and Seminaries.  Among the many instances, it was used at the Episcopal consecration of Bishop Richard Seminak on June 4, 2003.  This witness provides another indication of the return to an abandoned custom, although not universally practiced.  At the same ceremony, the Easternization of our liturgy was further witnessed in the interesting note that the English version of the Nicene Constantinopolitan Creed totally omitted the filioque, while the Ukrainian contains it in brackets.

The issue of the filioque represents one of the more recent accomplishments from the Archeparchy of Philadelphia with a booklet entitled, The Creed and the Holy Trinity, which was published in 2004.  It details the argument for not taking the filioque in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed.  The author, Very Rev. Archpriest Daniel Gurovich, concludes with this statement:

The Ukrainian Catholic Church is an Eastern Church.  We are called by our own tradition and the Western Church to be faithful to our heritage.  Therefore in 2004 the Metropolitan Archbishop of Philadelphia has made the decision to return to the authentic tradition of the Ukrainian Catholic Church and recite the Creed at all public divine services in its original form.[67]

 

This important step couple with the already mentioned reunification of the Sacraments of Initiation as indicated in the practice of the Parma Eparchy and adopted formally in the Stamford Eparchy witnesses to this return to the authentic Eastern lived liturgical experience.  Many parishes are now celebrating the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, First Holy Communions are slowly being left to the Latin Churches, hand bells are a thing of the past, and liturgies are being sung in their entirety.  This partial list of the accomplishments of the Ukrainian Catholic Church during the Pontificate of Pope John Paul II provides hope.

This brief overview only paints a limited picture.  The influence of Pope John Paul II on the Ukrainian Catholic Church in realizing its own identity is truly remarkable.  Still, the liturgical reforms envisioned by the CCEO, the Liturgical Instruction, and even Orientalium Ecclesiarum remain to be completely and universally applied.  It is my judgment that the role of John Paul II in the liturgical life of the Ukrainian Catholic Church has been crucial in helping the hierarchy and the laity to realize and claim their own Eastern identity and to celebrate who they are as Eastern Catholics.  He stimulated reflection by his own example in the various liturgical celebrations and by creating a positive ecclesiological environment in which this Eastern identity could flourish.



[1] This is the text of a speech given to the St. Sophia Religious Association at LaSalle University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on June 4, 2005 during their conference entitled, The Legacy of Pope John Paul II and Ukraine: An International Conference.  The selected themes address the liturgical issues of the participants.  This study does not pretend to be an exhaustive analysis of the subject.

[2] I have capitalized this term to underline its designation as a particular denomination in this usage, not as used in the liturgy to mean true believing and worshiping.

[3] http://www.archdiocese-phl.org/events/5ukrainian.htm

[4] http://www.archdiocese-phl.org/events/5ukrainian.htm

[5] For the text of Pope John Paul II’s homily see: http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/1979/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_19791112_ordin-msgr-lubachivsky_it.html

[6] Arxieratikon= jli Slu'ebnik= SvÏtitelьsk`j, Rome 1975.

[7] http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_decree_19641121_orientalium-ecclesiarum_en.html.

[8] R.F. Taft, “The Liturgy in the Life of the Church,” given at the “Encounter of Eastern Catholic Bishops of America and Oceania,” Boston, November 8-12, 1999, ECJ 7 (2000) 74.

[9] R.F. Taft, “The Liturgy in the Life of the Church,” given at the “Encounter of Eastern Catholic Bishops of America and Oceania,” Boston, November 8-12, 1999, ECJ 7 (2000)78f.

[10] See especially Part II: P. Galadza, The Theology and Liturgical Work of Andrei Sheptytsky (1865-1944), (OCA 272) Rome 2004.

[11] For a general historical overviews see: B. R. Bociurkiw, The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and the Soviet State, 1939-1950, Edmonton 1996; J.P. Himka, “The Greek Catholic Church and Nation-Building in Galicia, 1772-1918” Harvard Ukrainian Studies 8 (1984) 456-52; Id., Religion and Nationality in Western Ukraine: The Greek Catholic Church and the Ruthenian National Movement in Galicia, 1867-1900, Montreal 1999;  M. Hrushevsky, History of Ukraine Rus'. 10 vols., trans. M. Skorupsky; ed. A. Poppe, Edmonton 1997- .

[12] C. Capros, “Origine e sviluppo della S. C. Orientale,” in La Sacra Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali nel cinquantesimo della fonazione 1917-1967, Rome 1969, 27-64.

[13] J. Krajcar, “A Report on the Ruthenians and their Errors,” OCP 29 (1963) 75-94.

[14] J. Krajcar, “A Report on the Ruthenians and their Errors,” OCP 29 (1963) 88.

[15] J. Krajcar, “A Report on the Ruthenians and their Errors,” OCP 29 (1963) 89.

[16] J. Krajcar, “A Report on the Ruthenians and their Errors,” OCP 29 (1963) 90.

[17] For a complete history of this Union see: B. Dupuy, “Recherches sur l’Union de Brest,” Istina 35 (1990) 17-42; B. Gudziak, Crisis and Reform: the Kyivan Metropolitanate, the Patriarchate of Constantinople, and the Genesis of the Union of Brest, Cambridge 2001.  S. Senyk, “Vicissitudes de l’Union de Brest au XVIIe siècle,” Irenikon 65 (1992) 462-87; id., “The Background of the Union of Brest,” Analecta OSBM 21 (1996) 103-144; S. Saulle, “L’Unione de Breat.  Genesi e sviluppi storici,” Studie sull’ Oriente cristiano 2/1(1998) 137-164, 2/2 (1998) 137-167.  See also: A. Jobert, De Luther à Mohila.  La Pologne dans la crise de la Chrétienté, 1517-1648, (Collection historique de l’Institut d’études slaves) Paris 1974.  For the articles of the Union see: M. Delmotte, trans.“Les Articles de Brest” Istina 35 (1990) 43-49.

[18] For a recent overview of current literature see: Taft, R. F., “Reflections on Uniatism in the Light of Some Recent Books,” OCP 65 (1999) 153-184 and id, “Correction,” OCP 65 (1999) 466..  Some of the principle works are: M. A. Fahey, Orthodox and Catholic Sister Churches: East is West and West is East, Milwaukee 1996; E. C. Suttner, Church Unity – Union or Uniatism?  Catholic-Orthodox Ecumenical Perspectives, transl “V. McNeil (Placid Lecture Series 13) Bangalore 1991; J-C. Roberti, Les Uniates (Fides 44) Paris 1992.  R.F. Taft, “Between East and West: The Eastern Catholic (‘Uniate’) Churches, 1815-1914,” to appear as a chapter in S. Gilley, B. Stanley (eds.), World Christianities c. 1815-1914 (The Cambridge History of Christianity, New York/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) in press;  R.F. Taft, “The Problem of ‘Uniatism’ and the ‘Healing of Memories’: Anamnesis, not Amnesia,” Annual Kelly Lecture at The University of St. Michael’s College of the University of Toronto, December 1, 2000, Logos 41-42 (2000-2001) 155-196 (published May 2003); R.F. Taft, “Reflections on ‘Uniatism’,” ECJ 7 (2000) 33-71

[19] C. Gugerotti, “Diritto e Liturgia nelle Chiese Orientali,” Congegrazione per le Chiese Orientali, Ius Ecclesiarum Vehiculum Caritatis: Atti del simposio internazionale per il decennale dell’entrate in vigore del Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium, Città del Vaticano, 19 – 23 novembre 2001, Vatican 2004, 267-271.

[20] For an overview see: C. Soetens, Le Congrès Eucharistique international de Jérusalem (1893) dans le cadre de la politique orientale du pape Léon XIII (Recueil de travaux d’histoire et de philologie, série 6, fasc. 12, Louvain 1977); Rosario F. Esposito, Leone XIII e l’Oriente cristiano: Studio storico-sistematico (Rome 1960) 367-384; J. Hajjar, Les chrétiens uniates du Proche-Orient (Paris: Seuil 1962) 309-311; for further bibliography on Leo’s policies regarding the East consult G. Croce, La Badia Greca di Grottaferrata e la rivista “Roma e l’Oriente.” Cattolicesimo e ortodossia fra unionismo e ecumenismo (1799-1923), 2 vols., Vatican City 1990, Vol. I, 126-26 note 48 & R.F. Taft, “Eastern Catholic Theology—Is There Any Such Thing? Reflections of a Practitioner,” Logos 39 (1998) 13-58.

[21] For the history of the Congregation see: La Sacra Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali nel cinquantesimo della fonazione 1917-1967, Rome 1969.

[22] For the history of the Pontifical Oriental Institute see: E. G. Farrugia, ed., The Pontifical Oriental Institute the First Seventy Five Years 1917-1992, Rome 1993.

[23]Liturgie dell’Oriente Cristiano a Roma nell’ anno Mariano 1987-88: Testi e Studi, Vatican 1990, xi.

[24] “Le celebrazioni hanno offerto anche l’occasione per attuare alcune riforme di riti orientali, riportandoli ad uno stato più in conforme con le loro genuine fonti e quindi con la tradizione.  Tale fatto ha dato la possibilità di approfondirne la portata storica, teologica ed ecumenica.” Liturgie dell’Oriente Cristiano a Roma nell’ anno Mariano 1987-88: Testi e Studi, Vatican 1990, xvi.

[25] W. Baum, “Circular Letter Concerning Studies of the Oriental Churches,” L’Osservatore Romano April 6, 1987, 12.

[26] http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/letters/1979/documents/hf_jp-ii_let_19790616_1000-crist-rus_it.html

[27] “Fu così che la nuova Chiesa della Rus' attinse da Costantinopoli l'intero patrimonio dell'Oriente cristiano e tutte le ricchezze ad esso proprie nel campo della teologia, della liturgia, della spiritualità, della vita ecclesiale, dell'arte.”( Euntes in mundum of 25 January 1988 no 3 http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_25011988_euntes-in-mundum-universum_it.html)

[28] Here is the entire context of the reference from Euntes in mundum 10: “Consapevole di tale realtà, il Concilio Vaticano II ha aperto, in materia di ecumenismo, una fase nuova, che sta arrecando frutti promettenti. Il decreto conciliare sull'ecumenismo, già citato più volte, è espressione della stima e dell'amore che la Chiesa cattolica nutre per la ricca eredità dell'oriente cristiano, del quale mette in rilievo l'originalità, la diversità e, nello stesso tempo, la legittimità. Esso dice tra l'altro: «Fin dai primi tempi le Chiese d'Oriente seguivano discipline proprie, sancite dai santi Padri e dai Concili, anche ecumenici. E siccome una certa diversità di usi e consuetudini, sopra ricordata, non si oppone minimamente all'unità della Chiesa, anzi ne accresce il decoro e contribuisce non poco al compimento della sua missione, il sacro Concilio, onde togliere ogni dubbio, dichiara che le Chiese d'Oriente, memori della necessaria unità di tutta la Chiesa, hanno potestà di regolarsi secondo le proprie discipline, come più consone all'indole dei loro fedeli e più adatte a provvedere al bene delle anime» (Unitatis Redintegratio», 16).  Dal decreto risulta chiaramente la caratteristica autonomia disciplinare, di cui godono le Chiese orientali: essa non è conseguenza di privilegi concessi dalla Chiesa di Roma, ma della legge stessa che tali Chiese possiedono sin dai tempi apostolici.” http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_25011988_euntes-in-mundum-universum_it.html)

[29] The Ukrainian Catholic Church had referred liturgical issues to the Oriental Congregation for further study which lead to the publication of the authoritative liturgical books for the Ukrainian Catholic Church.  For a comprehensive study of the liturgical situation in the first part of the twentieth century and the role of Metropolitan Sheptytsky see P. Galadza, The Theology and Liturgical Work of Andrei Sheptytsky (1865-1944), (OCA 272) Rome 2004.

[30] Consult the Vatican Liturgy book published for this event, La Divina Liturgia in Rito Bizantino-Ucraino:  Basilica Vaticana – 10 luglio 1988, Millennio del Battesimo della Rus’ di Kiev, Vatican 1988. 

[31] For an historical background see especially Part II: P. Galadza, The Theology and Liturgical Work of Andrei Sheptytsky (1865-1944), (OCA 272) Rome 2004.

[32] R.F. Taft, “Water into Wine. The Twice-Mixed Chalice in the Byzantine Eucharist,” Le Muséon 100 (1987) 323-342.  R.F. Taft, “The Liturgy in the Life of the Church,” given at the “Encounter of Eastern Catholic Bishops of America and Oceania,” Boston, November 8-12, 1999, ECJ 7 (2000) 65-106.

[33]J.M. Hoeck, R.J. Loenertz (eds.), Nikolaos-Nektarios von Otranto, Abt von Casole. Beiträge zur Geschichte der ost-westlichen Beziehungen unter Innozenz III. und Friedrich II. (Studia Patristica et Byzantina 11, Ettal 1965) 136-38; on the abbot and his dates, 9ff.

[34]L.D. Huculak, The Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom in the Kievan Metropolitan Province during the Period of Union with Rome (1596-1839), (Analecta Ordinis Sancti Basilii Magni, Series II, Section 1, vol. 47) Rome 1990, 333-35; M.M. Solovey, The Byzantine Divine Liturgy. History and Commentary, Washington, D.C. 1970, 318.

[35]See J. Gill, “The Tribulations of the Greek Church in Cyprus, 1196-c. 1280,” Byzantinische Forschungen 5 (1977) 73-93, esp. 86.

[36]The Vatican and the Eastern Churches. Papal Encyclicals and Documents concerning the Eastern Churches, vol. 1, Fairfax, VA,1996, 23-24, 79

[37]J.-M. Hanssens, Institutiones liturgicae de ritibus orientalibus II-III, Rome 1930, 1932, II, §§424-40.

[38]Ibid. §440; Jungmann, Missarum Sollemnia II, 40-41.

[39] R.F. Taft, “The Liturgy in the Life of the Church,” given at the “Encounter of Eastern Catholic Bishops of America and Oceania,” Boston, November 8-12, 1999, ECJ 7 (2000) 94.

[40] Молитовник паломника з нагоди римських торжеств 1000 річчя Хрещення Руси України, Rome 1988.

[41] John Paul II, Apostolic Constitution Sacri canones, October 8, 1990 in Code of Canons of the Eastern Church: Latin-English Edition – New English Translation, Washington 2001,xxi-xxviii.

[42] Congegrazione per le Chiese Orientali, Ius Ecclesiarum Vehiculum Caritatis: Atti del simposio internazionale per il decennale dell’entrate in vigore del Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium, Città del Vaticano, 19 – 23 novembre 2001, Vatican 2004.

[43] C. Gugerotti, “Diritto e Liturgia nelle Chiese Orientali,” Congegrazione per le Chiese Orientali, Ius Ecclesiarum Vehiculum Caritatis: Atti del simposio internazionale per il decennale dell’entrate in vigore del Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium, Città del Vaticano, 19 – 23 novembre 2001, Vatican 2004, 263-275.

[44] The Mysteries of Christian Initiation: Baptism, Chrismation and Eucharist, Parma, Ohio, 2002.

[45] For an historical overview of this issue see: R.F. Taft, “The Liturgy in the Life of the Church,” given at the “Encounter of Eastern Catholic Bishops of America and Oceania,” Boston, November 8-12, 1999, ECJ 7 (2000) 94-101.

[46] http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_02051995_orientale-lumen_en.html

[47] R. F. Taft, “Response to the Berakah Award: Anamnesis,” in id., Beyond East and West: Problems in Liturgical Understanding, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition, Rome 1997, 290f.

[48] R. F. Taft, “Response to the Berakah Award: Anamnesis,” in id., Beyond East and West: Problems in Liturgical Understanding, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition, Rome 1997, 302.

[49] http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_02051995_orientale-lumen_en.html

[50] http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_02051995_orientale-lumen_en.html

[51] http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_02051995_orientale-lumen_en.html

[52] http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_02051995_orientale-lumen_en.html

[53] Pope John Paul II, General Audience 9 August 1995 as printed in L’Osservatore Romano August 23, 1995 English weekly edition p 7.

[54] Pope John Paul II, General Audience 9 August 1995 as printed in L’Osservatore Romano August 23, 1995 English weekly edition p 7.

[55] http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_19951112_iv-cent-union-brest_en.html

[56] http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_19951112_iv-cent-union-brest_en.html

[57] La Divina Liturgia in Rito Bizantino-Ucraino:  Basilica Vaticana – 7 Luglio 1996: Quarto centenario dell’Unione de Brest, Vatican 1996.

[58] The Instruction for Applying the Liturgical Prescriptions of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches Vatican 1996.

[59] The Instruction for Applying the Liturgical Prescriptions of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches Vatican 1996, Paragraph 5.  Hereafter referred to as Instruction. 

[60] Instruction 10.

[61] Instruction 15.

[62] Instruction 18

[63] Robert F. Taft: “The Contribution of Eastern Liturgy to the Understanding of Christian Worship,” Logos 37 (1996) 298.

[64] http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/2000/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_20001208_akathistos_en.html

[65] http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/2000/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_20000507_test-fede_en.html

[66] M. Petrowycz, Bringing Back the Saints: The Contribution of the Roman Edition of the Ruthenian Liturgical Books (Recensio Ruthena, 1940-1952) to the Commemoration of Slavic Saints in the Ukrainian Catholic Church, (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation: St. Paul University) Ottawa 2004.

[67] The Creed and the Holy Trinity, Philadelphia 2004.